Valluvar points out to two different things, namely, grace (Kural 241) and hearing (Kural 411). திருக்குறள் ஒரு தேசிய நூல் [Tirukkural: A National Book] (Pub. [45] According to Zvelebil, Valluvar's treatment of the chapters on moral vegetarianism and non-killing reflects the Jain precepts. [9] In a manner similar to speculations of the author's biography, there has been much speculation about his religion with no historical evidence. [63][g], The content of Tirukkural, according to Zvelebil:[65], The Kural text is the work of a single author because it has a consistent "language, formal structure and content-structure", states Zvelebil. [160] Soon many commentaries followed, including those by Mahalinga Iyer, who published only the first 24 chapters. Assertion of the strength of Virtue (, Chapter 15. Knowledge in the Council Chamber (, Chapter 76. In regard to the virtues one should follow dearly even at the expense of other virtues, Valluvar points to veracity (Kural 297), not coveting another's wife (Kural 150), and not being called a slanderer (Kural 181). "The Excellent Love Settings") which starts with an invocation to Vishnu, appear in the later Tirukkural. [64] According to Indian philosophical tradition, one must remain unattached to wealth and possessions, which can either be transcended or sought with detachment and awareness, and pleasure needs to be fulfilled consciously and without harming anyone. The Five Lesser Epics of Tamil Literature, This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 08:47. In essence, however, in Chapter 33 he crowns non-killing as the foremost of all virtues, pushing even the virtue of veracity to the second place (Kural 323). [72], In poetic terms, it fuses verse and aphoristic form in diction in a "pithy, vigorous, forceful and terse" manner. [138] The text was translated into several European languages during the colonial era, particularly by the Christian missionaries. The text supports death penalty for the wicked in the book of poruḷ, but does so only after emphasizing non-killing as every individual's personal virtue in the book of aṟam. It was translated into French by Monsieur Ariel in 1848. [90] Valluvar presents his theory of state using six elements: army (patai), subjects (kuti), treasure (kul), ministers (amaiccu), allies (natpu), and forts (aran). Classical works such as the Purananuru, Manimekalai, Silappathikaram, Periya Puranam, and Kamba Ramayanam all cite the Kural by various names, bestowing numerous titles to the work that was originally untitled by its author. [211][212] The tallest of these is the 41-metre (133 ft) stone statue of Valluvar erected in 2000 atop a small island in the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean. "[22] Thus, Tirukkural literally comes to mean "sacred couplets."[1]. Attributed to Thiruvalluvar, who probably lived between the 3 rd and 6 th centuries A.D., the Kural (as it is often referred) occupies a leading place amongst the wisdom literatures of the world. One French [221] The work is commonly quoted in vegetarian conferences, both in India and abroad. [204] All the 1,330 verses of the Kural text are inscribed on bas-relief in the corridors in the main hall. [5] John Lazarus, a native missionary, revised Drew's work and completed the remaining portion, beginning from Chapter 64 through Chapter 133. [19][a] Certain epithets for God and ascetic values found in the text are found in Jainism, states Zvelebil. thirukkural read online. [128] Following these medieval commentaries, there are at least 21 venpa commentaries to the Kural, including Somesar Mudumoli Venba, Murugesar Muduneri Venba, Sivasiva Venba, Irangesa Venba, Vadamalai Venba, Dhinakara Venba, and Jinendra Venba, all of which are considered commentaries in verse form. [206] The temple was extensively renovated in the 1970s. [120], The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written exegesis or commentaries (explanation in prose or verse), known in Tamil as urai, on it. It was partially translated into English verse by Nathaniel Edward Kindersley in 1794. In the early 16th century, the Shaiva Hindu community built a temple within the Ekambareeswara-Kamakshi (Shiva-Parvati) temple complex in Mylapore, Chennai, in honor of Tirukkuṛaḷ's author, Valluvar. "[1] The term tiru has as many as 19 different meanings. The first claim of Valluvar as an authority appears in a 16th-century Jain text. [104], The Kural text does not recommend democracy; rather it accepts a royalty with ministers bound to a code of ethics and a system of justice. In these cases, the violations of the aram [in the earlier section] are justified [by Thiruvalluvar] in virtue of the special duties cast on the king and the justification is that 'a few wicked must be weeded out to save the general public' (TK 550)."[50]. No. It is a standing repute to modern Tamil. [176] The Tirukkural teaches that the ministers and people who work in public office should lead an ethical and moral life. The Kural was the first book to be published in Tamil,[156] followed by the Naladiyar.[157]. [16][121][123] Among the ten medieval commentaries, scholars have found spelling, homophonic, and other minor textual variations in a total of 900 couplets, including 217 couplets in Book I, 487 couplets in Book II, and 196 couplets in Book III. [84][85] According to Albert Schweitzer, the idea that good must be done for its own sake comes from various couplets across the Kural text. Persons who are determined not to overlook moral disciplines will not take meat obtained by killing other species. [12][16], The Kural has been widely admired by scholars and influential leaders across the ethical, social, political, economical, religious, philosophical, and spiritual spheres over its history. (n.d.). Wisdom free from the painful mind of evil will abstain from feeding on flesh. Pope who had spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English, which includes Thirukkural, have recognised Thiruvalluvar as a Paraiyar. [129][130], Several modern commentaries started appearing in the 19th and 20th centuries. Rajaji commented, "It is the gospel of love and a code of soul-luminous life. If you ask what charity is and what is not, they are non-killing and killing respectively; eating that (slaughtered) meat is unrighteousness (sin). Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. [134], Since the 1970s, the Kural text has been transliterated into ancient Tamil scripts such as the Tamil-Brahmi script, Pallava script, Vatteluttu script and others by Gift Siromoney of the International Institute of Tamil Studies (IITS, Madras Christian College). The Greatness of Those Who Have Renounced (, Chapter 4. Each kural or couplet contains exactly seven words, known as cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second, following the kural metre. Translated up to couplets 380 from Book I. What’s grace, or lack of grace? [7] Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. [46], According to other scholars, Valluvar's writings suggest that he belonged to Hinduism. "[225][226] The court observed, "No other philosophical or religious work has such moral and intellectual approach to problems of life. Around the chariot's perimeter are marble plates inscribed with Tirukkural couplets. According to V. Ramasamy, "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as 'the sea of miserable life' and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as 'sea of this birth' which has been translated by others as 'the sea of many births'. The men of pure vision quite free from illusion's dark mesh. [26] According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition" as a few of the verses in the Kural text are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses of earlier Indian texts. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. History of translations. [81][82][83] Contrary to what other contemporary works say, Valluvar holds that aṟam is common for all, irrespective of whether the person is a bearer of palanquin or the rider in it. This can be observed in his treatment of the concept of ahimsa or non-violence, which is the principal concept of both the religions. The first complete English translation by a native scholar was made the following year by V. V. S. Aiyar, who translated the entire work in prose. The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. For example, the Prabandhas such as the Tiruvalluvamalai probably from the 10th century CE are anthologies on Tirukkural, and these extensively quote and embed it verses written in meters ascribed to gods, goddesses, and revered Tamil scholars. [77] Valluvar extols rain next only to God for it provides food and serves as the basis of a stable economic life by aiding in agriculture, which Valluvar asserts as the most important economic activity later in Book II of the Kural text. [9][40] The traditional biographies not only are inconsistent, but also contain incredulous claims about the author of the Kural text. According to popular sources, Kandappan preserved the works from destruction after finding the manuscripts written on palm leaves in a pile of leaves used for cooking. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics in Dravidian literature. [37], Various claims have been made regarding Valluvar's family background and occupation in the colonial era literature, all inferred from selective sections of his text or hagiographies published since the colonial era started in Tamil Nadu. [205] The locals believe that this is where Valluvar was born, underneath a tree within the shrines complex. Historian K. K. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st century CE. [21] According to Miron Winslow, kural is used as a literary term to indicate "a metrical line of 2 feet, or a distich or couplet of short lines, the first of 4 and the second of 3 feet. [33] There is negligible authentic information available about Valluvar's life. [87] Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers. Mr. Gnanou Diagou - For his French translation. [162], The first critical edition of the Tirukkaral based on manuscripts discovered in Hindu monasteries and private collections was published in 1861 by Arumuka Navalar – the Jaffna born Tamil scholar and Shaivism activist. The 19th-century Christian missionary George Uglow Pope, for example, claimed that Valluvar must have lived in the 9th century CE, come in contact with Christian teachers such as Pantaenus of Alexandria, imbibed Christian ideas and peculiarities of Alexandrian teachers and then wrote the "wonderful Kurral" with an "echo of the 'Sermon of the Mount'. These are written by various scholars to develop, comment on and expound the terse ideas such as a kural or a sutra or any text of significant significance (e.g. It was translated into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730 (Ramasamy 2001). Men of wisdom freed from the error (of delusion) will not eat flesh carved out of a creature. While Kindersley translated a selection of the Kural text, Ellis translated 120 couplets in all—69 of them in verse and 51 in prose. A person free from the erroneous beliefs and equipped with the right faith will not eat flesh obtained from animal bereft of life. It contained the original Tamil text of the Kural, Parimelalhagar's commentary, Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary and Drew's English prose translation. thiruvallur thirukural with meaning. TIRUKKURAL English Translation and Commentary by Rev Dr G U Pope, Rev W H Drew, Rev John Lazarus and Mr F W Ellis First published by W.H. [107] He never indulged in specifics but always stressed on the basic principles of morality. Benevolence is not to kill, and killing is lack of it. A Valluvar statue in yoga position holding a palm leaf manuscript of Tirukurral sits under the tree. [217][228], a. Instability of Earthly Things (, Chapter 45. [135], The Kural has been the most frequently translated ancient Tamil text. 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